ipa tkdu/bahasa inggris/2009

Welcome to your ipa tkdu/bahasa inggris/2009

Passage 1

Sometimes experience in other countries can fielp people to understand their own identity better. Mahatma Gandhi was born 1869 at Portandar in Western India. After studying in India, he dreamt of going to England to study. ؛ ie was told that his Hindu religion did not allow voyages abroad. However, Gandhi was very determined and he final:•■, left for England in 1887. At first he tried to learn to behave like an English gentleman, but he soon learnt that it was better to be himself. He studied law in London, qualifying in 1891. He also learnt about other religions.

He returned home to India and worked as a lawyer for two years. After some problems, he was offered a job in South Africa. Here he experienced racism as a member of the Indian community. He decided to fight for the rights ^٠ of Indians using “passive resistance”. He had three main beliefs, namely non-violence, religious tolerance and truth. When he finally returned to India in 1915, he became a great political leader. During the fight for independence he was often put in prison, but his beliefs never changed.

Gandhi had studied in Britain, so he understood the British better than they understood him. Gandhi’s leadership led to independence, but, on Independence Day, 15 August, 947؛, Gandhi refused to celebrate. He was in favor of ^ Hindu-Muslim unity but Muslims and Hindus could not agree, so a Separate Muslim state was formed m Pakistan. In 1948, Gandhi started fasting to death as a protest against fighting between India and Pakistan. He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic on 30“' January 1948. India and Paksitan are still fighting in Kashmir today. The fight for independence was a difficult one, but not as difficult as the fight for non-violence, religious tolerance and truth.

 

 

The following statements are true about Mahatma Gandhi, EXCEPT .

Passage 1

Sometimes experience in other countries can fielp people to understand their own identity better. Mahatma Gandhi was born 1869 at Portandar in Western India. After studying in India, he dreamt of going to England to study. ؛ ie was told that his Hindu religion did not allow voyages abroad. However, Gandhi was very determined and he final:•■, left for England in 1887. At first he tried to learn to behave like an English gentleman, but he soon learnt that it was better to be himself. He studied law in London, qualifying in 1891. He also learnt about other religions.

He returned home to India and worked as a lawyer for two years. After some problems, he was offered a job in South Africa. Here he experienced racism as a member of the Indian community. He decided to fight for the rights ^٠ of Indians using “passive resistance”. He had three main beliefs, namely non-violence, religious tolerance and truth. When he finally returned to India in 1915, he became a great political leader. During the fight for independence he was often put in prison, but his beliefs never changed.

Gandhi had studied in Britain, so he understood the British better than they understood him. Gandhi’s leadership led to independence, but, on Independence Day, 15 August, 947؛, Gandhi refused to celebrate. He was in favor of ^ Hindu-Muslim unity but Muslims and Hindus could not agree, so a Separate Muslim state was formed m Pakistan. In 1948, Gandhi started fasting to death as a protest against fighting between India and Pakistan. He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic on 30“' January 1948. India and Paksitan are still fighting in Kashmir today. The fight for independence was a difficult one, but not as difficult as the fight for non-violence, religious tolerance and truth.

 The passage above mainly deals with Mahatma Gandhi’s .

Passage 1

Sometimes experience in other countries can fielp people to understand their own identity better. Mahatma Gandhi was born 1869 at Portandar in Western India. After studying in India, he dreamt of going to England to study. ؛ ie was told that his Hindu religion did not allow voyages abroad. However, Gandhi was very determined and he final:•■, left for England in 1887. At first he tried to learn to behave like an English gentleman, but he soon learnt that it was better to be himself. He studied law in London, qualifying in 1891. He also learnt about other religions.

He returned home to India and worked as a lawyer for two years. After some problems, he was offered a job in South Africa. Here he experienced racism as a member of the Indian community. He decided to fight for the rights ^٠ of Indians using “passive resistance”. He had three main beliefs, namely non-violence, religious tolerance and truth. When he finally returned to India in 1915, he became a great political leader. During the fight for independence he was often put in prison, but his beliefs never changed.

Gandhi had studied in Britain, so he understood the British better than they understood him. Gandhi’s leadership led to independence, but, on Independence Day, 15 August, 947؛, Gandhi refused to celebrate. He was in favor of ^ Hindu-Muslim unity but Muslims and Hindus could not agree, so a Separate Muslim state was formed m Pakistan. In 1948, Gandhi started fasting to death as a protest against fighting between India and Pakistan. He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic on 30“' January 1948. India and Paksitan are still fighting in Kashmir today. The fight for independence was a difficult one, but not as difficult as the fight for non-violence, religious tolerance and truth.

We can infer from the following statements about Mahatma Gandhi, EXCEPT

Passage 1

Sometimes experience in other countries can fielp people to understand their own identity better. Mahatma Gandhi was born 1869 at Portandar in Western India. After studying in India, he dreamt of going to England to study. ؛ ie was told that his Hindu religion did not allow voyages abroad. However, Gandhi was very determined and he final:•■, left for England in 1887. At first he tried to learn to behave like an English gentleman, but he soon learnt that it was better to be himself. He studied law in London, qualifying in 1891. He also learnt about other religions.

He returned home to India and worked as a lawyer for two years. After some problems, he was offered a job in South Africa. Here he experienced racism as a member of the Indian community. He decided to fight for the rights ^٠ of Indians using “passive resistance”. He had three main beliefs, namely non-violence, religious tolerance and truth. When he finally returned to India in 1915, he became a great political leader. During the fight for independence he was often put in prison, but his beliefs never changed.

Gandhi had studied in Britain, so he understood the British better than they understood him. Gandhi’s leadership led to independence, but, on Independence Day, 15 August, 947؛, Gandhi refused to celebrate. He was in favor of ^ Hindu-Muslim unity but Muslims and Hindus could not agree, so a Separate Muslim state was formed m Pakistan. In 1948, Gandhi started fasting to death as a protest against fighting between India and Pakistan. He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic on 30“' January 1948. India and Paksitan are still fighting in Kashmir today. The fight for independence was a difficult one, but not as difficult as the fight for non-violence, religious tolerance and truth.

The word non-violence in the had three main beliefs non-violence, religious can best be replaced by

Passage 1

Sometimes experience in other countries can fielp people to understand their own identity better. Mahatma Gandhi was born 1869 at Portandar in Western India. After studying in India, he dreamt of going to England to study. ؛ ie was told that his Hindu religion did not allow voyages abroad. However, Gandhi was very determined and he final:•■, left for England in 1887. At first he tried to learn to behave like an English gentleman, but he soon learnt that it was better to be himself. He studied law in London, qualifying in 1891. He also learnt about other religions.

He returned home to India and worked as a lawyer for two years. After some problems, he was offered a job in South Africa. Here he experienced racism as a member of the Indian community. He decided to fight for the rights ^٠ of Indians using “passive resistance”. He had three main beliefs, namely non-violence, religious tolerance and truth. When he finally returned to India in 1915, he became a great political leader. During the fight for independence he was often put in prison, but his beliefs never changed.

Gandhi had studied in Britain, so he understood the British better than they understood him. Gandhi’s leadership led to independence, but, on Independence Day, 15 August, 947؛, Gandhi refused to celebrate. He was in favor of ^ Hindu-Muslim unity but Muslims and Hindus could not agree, so a Separate Muslim state was formed m Pakistan. In 1948, Gandhi started fasting to death as a protest against fighting between India and Pakistan. He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic on 30“' January 1948. India and Paksitan are still fighting in Kashmir today. The fight for independence was a difficult one, but not as difficult as the fight for non-violence, religious tolerance and truth.

 

the word violence in he haad three main beliefs. non violence, religious tolerant and truth (line9)

Passage 2

Education is often viewed as school in a traditional, formal sense. Many people believe that true learning can only take place in a formal classroom setting. Others feel education occurs in many different forms and environments. There may ، not be a definitive answer to the question of, ‘What is education?’ However, we can star, thinking about the purpose of education. Is it to educate youth to be responsible citizens? Is it to develop individuals, as well as society, in order 5 to ensure a society’s economic success? Or is it to simplify focus on developing individual talents and intelligence? Perhaps it is the balance of all three that defines education? While our answers may differ, we can perhaps agree that education is a basic human right. When that right is granted growth and development, the society as a whole is more likely to improve in areas such as health, nutrition, general income and living standards and population fertility rates. As global citizens it is our responsibility to critically think about the issues and attempt to come up with solutions 10 to the problems plaguing education. In 1990 UNESCO launched EFA, the movement to provide quality education for all children, youth, and adults by the year of 2015. The unfortunate reality is that for many countries, la: or issues come before improving the quality of education. How can we achieve the goals of EFA when numerous countries around he world arc faced with challenges that seem far too impossible to overcome? The answer lies in attempting to bridge some of the gaps that prevent developing nations to compete with developed nations. One example is that of providing 15 greater access to technology and narrowing the ever widening digital divide. In many ways the most basic access to technology can serve as a valuable educational tool. Individuals who arc not afforded this access are at disadvantage when trying to grasp opportunities to make life better for themselves, their families, and their community.

he author’s main concern in the first paragraph of the passage, is .

Passage 2

Education is often viewed as school in a traditional, formal sense. Many people believe that true learning can only take place in a formal classroom setting. Others feel education occurs in many different forms and environments. There may ، not be a definitive answer to the question of, ‘What is education?’ However, we can star, thinking about the purpose of education. Is it to educate youth to be responsible citizens? Is it to develop individuals, as well as society, in order 5 to ensure a society’s economic success? Or is it to simplify focus on developing individual talents and intelligence? Perhaps it is the balance of all three that defines education? While our answers may differ, we can perhaps agree that education is a basic human right. When that right is granted growth and development, the society as a whole is more likely to improve in areas such as health, nutrition, general income and living standards and population fertility rates. As global citizens it is our responsibility to critically think about the issues and attempt to come up with solutions 10 to the problems plaguing education. In 1990 UNESCO launched EFA, the movement to provide quality education for all children, youth, and adults by the year of 2015. The unfortunate reality is that for many countries, la: or issues come before improving the quality of education. How can we achieve the goals of EFA when numerous countries around (he world arc faced with challenges that seem far too impossible to overcome? The answer lies in attempting to bridge some of the gaps that prevent developing nations to compete with developed nations. One example is that of providing 15 greater access to technology and narrowing the ever widening digital divide. In many ways the most basic access to technology can serve as a valuable educational tool. Individuals who arc not afforded this access are at disadvantage when trying to grasp opportunities to make life better for themselves, their families, and their community.

If the author is right concerning the role of education, the followin might be redicted to take place   EXCEPT

Passage 2

Education is often viewed as school in a traditional, formal sense. Many people believe tin;:؛ ؛rue learning can only take place in a formal classroom setting. Others feel education occurs in many different forms and environments. There may ، not be a definitive answer to the question of, ‘What is education?’ However, we can star, thinking about the purpose of education. Is it to educate youth to be responsible citizens? Is it to develop individuals, as well as society, in order 5 to ensure a society’s economic success? Or is it to simplify focus on developing individual talents and intelligence? Perhaps it is the balance of all three that defines education? While our answers may differ, we can perhaps agree that education is a basic human right. When that right is granted growth and development, the society as a whole is more likely to improve in areas such as health, nutrition, general income and living standards and population fertility rates. As global citizens it is our responsibility to critically think about the issues and attempt to come up with solutions 10 to the problems plaguing education. In 1990 UNESCO launched EFA, the movement to provide quality education for all children, youth, and adults by the year of 2015. The unfortunate reality is that for many countries, la: or issues come before improving the quality of education. How can we achieve the goals of EFA when numerous countries around (he world arc faced with challenges that seem far too impossible to overcome? The answer lies in attempting to bridge some of the gaps that prevent developing nations to compete with developed nations. One example is that of providing 15 greater access to technology and narrowing the ever widening digital divide. In many ways the most basic access to technology can serve as a valuable educational tool. Individuals who arc not afforded this access are at disadvantage when trying to grasp opportunities to make life better for themselves, their families, and their community.

 

The following sentences reflect the author’s opinions in the passage except :

Passage 2

Education is often viewed as school in a traditional, formal sense. Many people believe tin;:؛ ؛rue learning can only take place in a formal classroom setting. Others feel education occurs in many different forms and environments. There may ، not be a definitive answer to the question of, ‘What is education?’ However, we can star, thinking about the purpose of education. Is it to educate youth to be responsible citizens? Is it to develop individuals, as well as society, in order 5 to ensure a society’s economic success? Or is it to simplify focus on developing individual talents and intelligence? Perhaps it is the balance of all three that defines education? While our answers may differ, we can perhaps agree that education is a basic human right. When that right is granted growth and development, the society as a whole is more likely to improve in areas such as health, nutrition, general income and living standards and population fertility rates. As global citizens it is our responsibility to critically think about the issues and attempt to come up with solutions 10 to the problems plaguing education. In 1990 UNESCO launched EFA, the movement to provide quality education for all children, youth, and adults by the year of 2015. The unfortunate reality is that for many countries, la: or issues come before improving the quality of education. How can we achieve the goals of EFA when numerous countries around

 

The situation the author shows in the passage above  is described as follows ,

Passage 2

Education is often viewed as school in a traditional, formal sense. Many people believe tin;:؛ ؛rue learning can only take place in a formal classroom setting. Others feel education occurs in many different forms and environments. There may ، not be a definitive answer to the question of, ‘What is education?’ However, we can star, thinking about the purpose of education. Is it to educate youth to be responsible citizens? Is it to develop individuals, as well as society, in order 5 to ensure a society’s economic success? Or is it to simplify focus on developing individual talents and intelligence? Perhaps it is the balance of all three that defines education? While our answers may differ, we can perhaps agree that education is a basic human right. When that right is granted growth and development, the society as a whole is more likely to improve in areas such as health, nutrition, general income and living standards and population fertility rates. As global citizens it is our responsibility to critically think about the issues and attempt to come up with solutions 10 to the problems plaguing education. In 1990 UNESCO launched EFA, the movement to provide quality education for all children, youth, and adults by the year of 2015. The unfortunate reality is that for many countries, la: or issues come before improving the quality of education. How can we achieve the goals of EFA when numerous countries around (he world arc faced with challenges that seem far too impossible to overcome? The answer lies in attempting to bridge some of the gaps that prevent developing nations to compete with developed nations. One example is that of providing 15 greater access to technology and narrowing the ever widening digital divide. In many ways the most basic access to technology can serve as a valuable educational tool. Individuals who arc not afforded this access are at disadvantage when trying to grasp opportunities to make life better for themselves, their families, and their community.

 

The part following the passage above would likely discus

Passage 3

Generally, by people’s own accounts, the public idea of women at home is that they are dull and boring. And the stereotype of a working woman is of hard, ambitious, selfish creatures. It is not just that you are either gentle and dull or selfish and interesting. It is that you are either a good mother or you are an interesting woman.

‘Young women now seem to get a very clear picture that they have got a choice. If they are going to do mothering 5 well, they have got to play for it by not being interesting women. If you are an interesting working woman, you are a bad mother.’ Lyn Richards put the blame for such notions and for resulting family tensions on the failure of people to talk enough about them. The media, too, are guilty. ‘There is a lot of media coverage of successful career women and still a lot, especially in women’s magazines, on ■the joys of motherhood. TJiere’s not that much about the trouble of cither role and precious little about combining the roles. Yet half the women who are married in our society are working.’

10 Nor is much thought given, to the task of loosening the ties entrapping men. Lyn Richards, a working mother, grateful for the privilege of genuinely choosing and being able to afford the role, criticizes the systematic exclusion of men from ‘child rearing and the really pretty fabulous aspects of having children’. She condemns as ludicrous the idea of the 9 to 5 treadmill of work as an absolute duty for men. ‘The sheer irony to me is that the women’s movement has told women the way to be liberated is to get into the 9 to 5 tied work force that men have been fighting against for a century. Really 15 we should be using changes in women’s values to shake up all the oppression and rigidity that men have been under.’

186
Indeed, there has been a change. ‘The new thing since I married is that it’s normal for both husband and wife to go on working when they marry. Now marriage isn’t a particularly big deal. Very often it just legalizes something which has been going on anyway and it certainly doesn’t change a woman’s whole basis of life, her notion of who she is. The real life change is having the first child and when that happens I think that probably most couples are still reverting to 20 something like the traditional concept of marriage. But the longer people put off having a child the more likely it is that they won’t because they have set up a viable life style. They don’t need to have kids now to have a good marriage.’ Not that motherhood and raising families are wholly going out of fashion but rather that people are having smaller families. Consequently, the period in a woman’s life when she is not required to devote herself to mothering is lengthening. ‘Motherhood—the mother role—just isn’t a very good identity base today, ’ Lyn Richards say. ‘Motherhood 25 is a short-term appointment now. It doesn’t last long.’

the expression combining the roles in ' precious little about combining the roles' (line10) in the passage means...

Passage 3

Generally, by people’s own accounts, the public idea of women at home is that they are dull and boring. And the stereotype of a working woman is of hard, ambitious, selfish creatures. It is not just that you are either gentle and dull or selfish and interesting. It is that you are either a good mother or you are an interesting woman.

‘Young women now seem to get a very clear picture that they have got a choice. If they are going to do mothering 5 well, they have got to play for it by not being interesting women. If you are an interesting working woman, you are a bad mother.’ Lyn Richards put the blame for such notions and for resulting family tensions on the failure of people to talk enough about them. The media, too, are guilty. ‘There is a lot of media coverage of successful career women and still a lot, especially in women’s magazines, on ■the joys of motherhood. TJiere’s not that much about the trouble of cither role and precious little about combining the roles. Yet half the women who are married in our society are working.’

10 Nor is much thought given, to the task of loosening the ties entrapping men. Lyn Richards, a working mother, grateful for the privilege of genuinely choosing and being able to afford the role, criticizes the systematic exclusion of men from ‘child rearing and the really pretty fabulous aspects of having children’. She condemns as ludicrous the idea of the 9 to 5 treadmill of work as an absolute duty for men. ‘The sheer irony to me is that the women’s movement has told women the way to be liberated is to get into the 9 to 5 tied work force that men have been fighting against for a century. Really 15 we should be using changes in women’s values to shake up all the oppression and rigidity that men have been under.’

186
Indeed, there has been a change. ‘The new thing since I married is that it’s normal for both husband and wife to go on working when they marry. Now marriage isn’t a particularly big deal. Very often it just legalizes something which has been going on anyway and it certainly doesn’t change a woman’s whole basis of life, her notion of who she is. The real life change is having the first child and when that happens I think that probably most couples are still reverting to 20 something like the traditional concept of marriage. But the longer people put off having a child the more likely it is that they won’t because they have set up a viable life style. They don’t need to have kids now to have a good marriage.’ Not that motherhood and raising families are wholly going out of fashion but rather that people are having smaller families. Consequently, the period in a woman’s life when she is not required to devote herself to mothering is lengthening. ‘Motherhood—the mother role—just isn’t a very good identity base today, ’ Lyn Richards say. ‘Motherhood 25 is a short-term appointment now. It doesn’t last long.’

the passage mainly deals with women's...

Passage 3

Generally, by people’s own accounts, the public idea of women at home is that they are dull and boring. And the stereotype of a working woman is of hard, ambitious, selfish creatures. It is not just that you are either gentle and dull or selfish and interesting. It is that you are either a good mother or you are an interesting woman.

‘Young women now seem to get a very clear picture that they have got a choice. If they are going to do mothering 5 well, they have got to play for it by not being interesting women. If you are an interesting working woman, you are a bad mother.’ Lyn Richards put the blame for such notions and for resulting family tensions on the failure of people to talk enough about them. The media, too, are guilty. ‘There is a lot of media coverage of successful career women and still a lot, especially in women’s magazines, on ■the joys of motherhood. TJiere’s not that much about the trouble of cither role and precious little about combining the roles. Yet half the women who are married in our society are working.’

10 Nor is much thought given, to the task of loosening the ties entrapping men. Lyn Richards, a working mother, grateful for the privilege of genuinely choosing and being able to afford the role, criticizes the systematic exclusion of men from ‘child rearing and the really pretty fabulous aspects of having children’. She condemns as ludicrous the idea of the 9 to 5 treadmill of work as an absolute duty for men. ‘The sheer irony to me is that the women’s movement has told women the way to be liberated is to get into the 9 to 5 tied work force that men have been fighting against for a century. Really 15 we should be using changes in women’s values to shake up all the oppression and rigidity that men have been under.’

186
Indeed, there has been a change. ‘The new thing since I married is that it’s normal for both husband and wife to go on working when they marry. Now marriage isn’t a particularly big deal. Very often it just legalizes something which has been going on anyway and it certainly doesn’t change a woman’s whole basis of life, her notion of who she is. The real life change is having the first child and when that happens I think that probably most couples are still reverting to 20 something like the traditional concept of marriage. But the longer people put off having a child the more likely it is that they won’t because they have set up a viable life style. They don’t need to have kids now to have a good marriage.’ Not that motherhood and raising families are wholly going out of fashion but rather that people are having smaller families. Consequently, the period in a woman’s life when she is not required to devote herself to mothering is lengthening. ‘Motherhood—the mother role—just isn’t a very good identity base today, ’ Lyn Richards say. ‘Motherhood 25 is a short-term appointment now. It doesn’t last long.’

a relevant question that can be raised out of the passage would be...........

Passage 3

Generally, by people’s own accounts, the public idea of women at home is that they are dull and boring. And the stereotype of a working woman is of hard, ambitious, selfish creatures. It is not just that you are either gentle and dull or selfish and interesting. It is that you are either a good mother or you are an interesting woman.

‘Young women now seem to get a very clear picture that they have got a choice. If they are going to do mothering 5 well, they have got to play for it by not being interesting women. If you are an interesting working woman, you are a bad mother.’ Lyn Richards put the blame for such notions and for resulting family tensions on the failure of people to talk enough about them. The media, too, are guilty. ‘There is a lot of media coverage of successful career women and still a lot, especially in women’s magazines, on ■the joys of motherhood. TJiere’s not that much about the trouble of cither role and precious little about combining the roles. Yet half the women who are married in our society are working.’

10 Nor is much thought given, to the task of loosening the ties entrapping men. Lyn Richards, a working mother, grateful for the privilege of genuinely choosing and being able to afford the role, criticizes the systematic exclusion of men from ‘child rearing and the really pretty fabulous aspects of having children’. She condemns as ludicrous the idea of the 9 to 5 treadmill of work as an absolute duty for men. ‘The sheer irony to me is that the women’s movement has told women the way to be liberated is to get into the 9 to 5 tied work force that men have been fighting against for a century. Really 15 we should be using changes in women’s values to shake up all the oppression and rigidity that men have been under.’

186
Indeed, there has been a change. ‘The new thing since I married is that it’s normal for both husband and wife to go on working when they marry. Now marriage isn’t a particularly big deal. Very often it just legalizes something which has been going on anyway and it certainly doesn’t change a woman’s whole basis of life, her notion of who she is. The real life change is having the first child and when that happens I think that probably most couples are still reverting to 20 something like the traditional concept of marriage. But the longer people put off having a child the more likely it is that they won’t because they have set up a viable life style. They don’t need to have kids now to have a good marriage.’ Not that motherhood and raising families are wholly going out of fashion but rather that people are having smaller families. Consequently, the period in a woman’s life when she is not required to devote herself to mothering is lengthening. ‘Motherhood—the mother role—just isn’t a very good identity base today, ’ Lyn Richards say. ‘Motherhood 25 is a short-term appointment now. It doesn’t last long.’

lyn argues that in rearing children in a family.......

Passage 3

Generally, by people’s own accounts, the public idea of women at home is that they are dull and boring. And the stereotype of a working woman is of hard, ambitious, selfish creatures. It is not just that you are either gentle and dull or selfish and interesting. It is that you are either a good mother or you are an interesting woman.

‘Young women now seem to get a very clear picture that they have got a choice. If they are going to do mothering 5 well, they have got to play for it by not being interesting women. If you are an interesting working woman, you are a bad mother.’ Lyn Richards put the blame for such notions and for resulting family tensions on the failure of people to talk enough about them. The media, too, are guilty. ‘There is a lot of media coverage of successful career women and still a lot, especially in women’s magazines, on ■the joys of motherhood. TJiere’s not that much about the trouble of cither role and precious little about combining the roles. Yet half the women who are married in our society are working.’

10 Nor is much thought given, to the task of loosening the ties entrapping men. Lyn Richards, a working mother, grateful for the privilege of genuinely choosing and being able to afford the role, criticizes the systematic exclusion of men from ‘child rearing and the really pretty fabulous aspects of having children’. She condemns as ludicrous the idea of the 9 to 5 treadmill of work as an absolute duty for men. ‘The sheer irony to me is that the women’s movement has told women the way to be liberated is to get into the 9 to 5 tied work force that men have been fighting against for a century. Really 15 we should be using changes in women’s values to shake up all the oppression and rigidity that men have been under.’

186
Indeed, there has been a change. ‘The new thing since I married is that it’s normal for both husband and wife to go on working when they marry. Now marriage isn’t a particularly big deal. Very often it just legalizes something which has been going on anyway and it certainly doesn’t change a woman’s whole basis of life, her notion of who she is. The real life change is having the first child and when that happens I think that probably most couples are still reverting to 20 something like the traditional concept of marriage. But the longer people put off having a child the more likely it is that they won’t because they have set up a viable life style. They don’t need to have kids now to have a good marriage.’ Not that motherhood and raising families are wholly going out of fashion but rather that people are having smaller families. Consequently, the period in a woman’s life when she is not required to devote herself to mothering is lengthening. ‘Motherhood—the mother role—just isn’t a very good identity base today, ’ Lyn Richards say. ‘Motherhood 25 is a short-term appointment now. It doesn’t last long.’

if lyn is correct, in the future women in families of younger generation.........

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